To change normality, most of the ratio research was transformed before analyses
A standard, cumulative index from cross-physical fitness try calculated for every mixture of maternal forest and you can pollen donor, centered on mature good fresh fruit put, vegetables germination, and survivorship and you can growth of seedlings. Per types, mixed-model study of variance was applied to assess the results of crossing therapy (repaired effect; which have maternal forest integrated once the an arbitrary impact) on portion of hand-pollinated plants means adult good fresh fruit, cost off seeds germination and you can seedling survivorship, seedling dimensions in the step 1 year, and you may cumulative fitness. Numerous habits was indeed looked at playing with ANOVA: (a) in addition to most of the services, (b) excluding imbalanced service, to allow review of communication terms, (c) without selfing cures (since maternal trees were mostly otherwise completely mind-incompatible), and you can (d) group every in this-Sinharaja outcrossing services to test the effect off inside- compared to. between-forest crossing. The outcome from crossing range on every parameter was then examined playing with linear otherwise quadratic regression investigation, according to the form of the relationship. Finally, each maternal tree, the consequences out of nearest-neighbor and long-distance mating was indeed estimated thanks to indices regarding biparental inbreeding despair and you may outbreeding depression, respectively, according to cumulative fitness beliefs.
Fruit abortion was heavy for all trees, resulting in low fruit set (range across treatments: 2.0–9.7%; Fig. 2a). The timing of abortion was not discernable across treatments. Self-compatibility was low, but variable, across maternal trees (Fig. 2a). Flowers used for tests of apomixis (N = 360) and autogamy (N = 582) failed to set fruit. All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect and significant maternal tree effect, but no significant interaction between treatment and maternal tree (Tables 2A and 3A). For all three trees, the percentage of experimental flowers setting mature fruit showed a consistent increase with crossing distance, followed by a severe decline in fruit set with the distant between-forest treatment (Fig. 2a). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was nearly identical for the three maternal trees and significant with or without the self-pollinated treatment included in the model (quadratic regression model: arcsine square-root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; results without self-pollinated treatment: F2,57 = 8.25, P < 0.0007, R 2 = 0.47). Peak mean fruit set occurred at a crossing distance of 1–2 km (distant within-forest treatment) and was 1.7–4.7 times greater than mean fruit set rates for other hand-pollination treatments, averaged across maternal trees. Mean fruit set rate for the distant within-forest treatment was significantly greater than those for all treatments except distant-neighbor and open-pollinated, but consistently exceeded fruit set of open-pollinated flowers (Fig. 2a).
Fruit set was also low for Sh. cordifolia (range across treatments: 0–5.3%; Fig. 2b). Again, the timing of fruit abortion was not discernable among treatments. Selfed and distant between-forest treatments resulted in escort service El Monte 0% and <1% fruit set, respectively. Fruit set from the intermediate-distance cross-pollinations varied across maternal trees, but with one exception (nearest-neighbor treatment at Tree number 1) indicated optimal fruit set at an outcrossing range of ?2 km (distant neighbor treatment; Fig. 2b). All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect, but no maternal tree effect (Tables 2B and 3B). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was significant only when the selfed treatment was excluded (quadratic regression model: arcsin square root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; Fdos,57 = 5.71, P < 0.006, R 2 = 0.41). At each maternal tree, fruit set rate for open-pollinated flowers was greater than that for all hand-cross treatments, suggesting that some aspect of the hand-pollination procedure (e.g., flower handling, bagging) caused reduced fruit set in Sh. cordifolia.